Sunday, February 26, 2006

Legends Of South India - V. Krishnaswamy Aiyer

"Let us work with brains enlarged and hearts expanded, with character ever more valuable than intellect and with trained capacity greater than knowledge."
- V. Krishnaswamy Aiyer

SINA and Ranade Library celebrated the centenary year in June 2005, The centenary year of Madras Sanskrit College was kicked off this year. Indian Bank will turn hundred, next year. All these institutions had a common beginning - its Founder,

Shri V. Krishnaswamy Aiyer. A young "vakil" rose to prominence, when he fought for the public in the Arbuthnot Bank Case.

You can find a brief summary of the life of a person, who did not even live 50 years, yet who managed to achieve great heights and ended as the Member of the Executive Council of Madras - a top ranking post offered to him by the admiring British- where he made a significant contribution to the Tenancy Legistlation.

He organised the Madras session of the Indian National Congress in 1908 which helped in bridging the gap between the moderates and extremists after the divide that happened in the 1907 Conference.

Here is a piece from The Hindu - A pioneer to remember.

Ps:- His great grand daughter, Mrs. Prabha Sridevan is a Madras High Court judge.

26 comments:

Anonymous said...

Posts like these make me come back to your blog. Loved this one. Please keep them coming.
-Arlington Anon

vishy said...

Ivar ungalukku eppadi related?? Unga sondhakarar ivalo arivaliya nambhave mudiyalaye!!

Usha said...

Serious question, neenga en Indian History book counselor-a poga koodadhu?

Rajesh said...

Indian History bookla solli kudukardhu
Babar-> Humayun -> Akbar avabga pathi thaan. Illa Gupta... Maurya...Ashoka... Ennikavadhu Chera Chola Pandiargal a pathi oru paragraph kku mela vandhurukka.

They are still talking about those Kings. 20th century history innum 5 centuries kku apparum thaan varum.

Anusha Parthasarathy said...

I agree with you Rajesh. Not much is written about Chera, Cholas and Pandiyas in our history books. All they talk about is Humayun, Babar, Shah Jahan, Akbar, Ashoka etc. But the TN Govt books (State Board books) dont talk about these kings at length too. They have branded them as Aryans etc etc...

To top it, that old fanatic fool M Karunanidhi has passed ill comments about the Bhagavad Gita !!!

Rajesh said...

Ennaya ellarum, naan edho article ezhudhina, vera edho topica pathi comment ezhudhareenga?

ashok said...

Tamil history (south Indian in general) has always been side lined. Damn the cong fools!

Rajaraja chola was the only king to have a kingdom beyond the Indian sub continent (upto combodia)...Cholas had the most advanced navy of their time...facts that are never highlighted in our history books.

Rajesh said...

Ashok,
Vikramaditya's empire was as far as Saudi Arabia.

Kalinga's ruled Cambodia before Raja Raja Chozhan

vishy said...

Rajesh,
evan natta eppadi aznthu irunthan enna..

koodiya seekaram.. olagathulla ulla ella nattulayum.. its goin to be an interbreed of Desis and Chinkus...

apporom ella nadum namma kaila dhan..

Btwn.. kadaisila ellarum V.K Iyer aah maranthutanga.. guess hardly ne one read the links in your post.. neenga innum avar ungalukku eppadi related nu solla ve illa??

Usha said...

I second vishy's opinion, desis and chinkis are everywhere now..but rajesh, tamil book-la ellam unga post madhiridhan matter varudhu, if not history book..

Rajesh said...

Vellai kaaran uttuduvaan nnu nenaikareengalaa. Oru bomb pottu azhichiduvan. Apparum edho nallavan madhiri "War for Peace" nnu emaathuvaan. So don't have high hopes.
V. K Iyer is my kollu thaatha from my father's side. Although I claim him as my ancestor, I don't know anybody in his lineage. Just cheap pride. Podhuma Vishy.

neighbour said...

hmm... nice subject to discuss...

First time here.. enakum history therunchukanum romba aasai..

Will get some info from your site.

Usha said...

?? enna onnume ezhudala? Romba naal achu!!

Ajay said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
vishy said...

enna Sir.. alle kannom? Porupukkal jaasthi agavitadhal Blog aah maranthupoitingala.

Anusha Parthasarathy said...

Enna Rajesh? Aale kaanum? Long time since ya updated ur blog...what happened buddy? Hope everything's fine !

Rajesh said...

time is 4:00 am. On a call with the customer. that is the state of affairs here.

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DEVENDRAKULAVELLALAR ARE THE DESCENDANTS OF CHERACHOLAPANDIYAS(MOOVENDAR)

Malaikaruppu said...

WHO ARE CHERACHOLAPANDIYAS(MOOVENDAR)?

The origin of Brahmanism, Caste and Riddles in Hinduism



The Brahmins wrote contradictory statements about the origin of Gods and their supremacy, about the Vedas and its origin, about the creation of Universe etc (Ref: RIDDLE IN HINDUISM – By Dr.B.R.Ambedkar). Why did they do so?



The guardian of Buddhism, the Mauryan Empire was brought down and Buddhism was demolished. There was chaos through out India.

It was the beginning of Brahmanism. So each one of the Brahmin philosophers tried to propose his own theory on creation.

For example during the 19 and 20 century AD, when Physics was born, with the discovery of atoms, electron proton, neutron and sub-atomic particles, there were so many theories that tried to explain atoms and the sub-atomic particles, e.g. the Nucleus theory, Dalton atomic theory, Quantum theory etc. Some of these theories were contradictory to one-another and some aided one-another. This happened with Brahmanism. This was the period, after 185 B.C, when Buddhism collapsed in India by a revolution and Brahmins were trying to introduce a new system with a new Political and religious Philosophy. Hence initially the Brahmins tried to use the Vedas as their basis and started to propose new theories about the creation of Universe and the God who created it. So there were so many conflicting and aiding theories. But this did not give a satisfactory explanation. So then they started writing the Upanishads attacking the Vedas and claiming they are inferior to the Upanishads and proposed new theories. This also did not work out. Then there were new proposals in the name of Smrithis. So in the name of Manu Smrithi, Sumati Bharagava wrote a set of rules (like a constitution) and made that as the final authority (Manu Smriti was written by Sumati Bharagava after 185 B.C. i.e. after the Revolution of Pushyamitra by Killing the Buddhist Mauryan Emperor Brihadratha – Based on Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Ancient India, Chapter 6: The Literature of Brahminism). This one got accepted and implemented by the then rulers of that time (Most probably by the Guptas between 2nd to 4th century AD and started spreading gradually through India over the next 1500 years with resistance and counter-resistance). The outcome of this is the 4 + 1 class system (Note: Earlier the Aryans had only a 3 class system). Brahmins held their position no matter, which Kingdom/dynasty came to power through the immunity given in the Manu Smrithy. The Kings who accepted the system were absorbed as Ksathrias itself as long as they were in power. The rich Businessmen were also absorbed as Vaisyas. All other classes were included in a new class called the Sudras. The ones that did not accept the system plus the Kings and his soldiers that were defeated in war were ex-communicated and ostracized from cities and towns and were gradually made untouchables.



As the system started growing the Brahmins and their supporters wrote more and more stories (e.g. addition of Bhagawat Gita to the Mahabharata, elevation of Rama as an avathar of Lord Vishnu, contradictory and unfitting avathars, of Lord Vishnu, like Balarama and Parasurama during the same time as Krishna) to aid and support their system and added them to the existing pre-Vedic, pre-Brahmanism literature that people knew about like the Bharatha (to be renamed Mahabharata), Ramayana etc. But also to hold their position the Brahmins had to be flexible enough to praise and raise the God of the King that ruled. Hence if the King was a devotee of Lord Vishnu, the Brahmins wrote stories in high praise of Lord Vishnu and degraded the other Gods, similarly if the King was a devotee of Lord Shiva, the Brahmins wrote stories in high praise of Lord Shiva and degraded the other Gods, similarly if the King was a devotee of Goddess Kali, the Brahmins wrote stories in high praise of Goddess Kali and degraded the other Gods. This is the reason there are numerous conflicting ideas about the supremacy of various Gods in Hinduism.



NOTE: According to Tolgapeeam – a Sangam Tamil literature that describes the life and state of affairs in ancient Tamil Country (Like an Encylopedia of that time) the land was classified into four major regions – Marutham – Plain lands and agricultural fields that comprised most of the Urban civilization, Mullai – Forest and settlements surrounding Forests, Kurunchi – Mountains and settlements surrounding Mountaneous region, Neythal – Seashore, Sea and settlements surrounding the seashores.

The God for Marutham was Indran

The God for Mullai was Thirumal (Lord Vishnu)

The God for Kurunchi was Murugan (Lord Karthik)

The God for Neythal was Varunan



The people in the 4 regions were considered as stable settlers.



All four Gods among other Gods were described as Mallas.

Later one more region was added as Palai – Desert region.

The God for Palai was Kotravai or Kali.

The people who wandered in the deserts were robbers and did not have stable settlement. As the men of these robbery tribes always wandered they did not have families.

These robbers looted people travelling outside the 4 regions and killed the male travellers most often and sacrificed these travellers to their Godess Kali. These robbers took the female travellers and had sex and left them. The children born to these robbers and raped women were raised by females. So usually a female is the head of a group or tribe. Hence they had female Godess named Kali.

At some point in time one of the robbery tribe should have gained power and established a Kingdom. The Brahamins who served this Kingdom performed pujas for the Godess of this Kingdom - Kali and later equated Kali to the wife of Lord Shiva.





The evolution of the concept: ‘Work by Birth’ in Brahmanism.



Now a days, we know there are certain inert characteristics of each individual. Say some never seem to get tired and seem to work all the time, some take short breaks between works. Some take long rest and suddenly erupt into massive burst of speed intensive work and then go back to rest for long duration, some have specific talents on specific engineering tasks, some have specific talent as surgeon etc that we call as natural. (This may be attributed to the Sun signs e.g. Aries have certain traits, Taurus have certain traits, Cancer have certain traits etc)

The ancient Indians were aware of this. So at the time of birth astrologers tell the child’s parents of what the newborn will become to be and what special talents it will have so that the parents can nurture those fields that the child is supposed to naturally possess and become an expert in it. (There are numerous examples of these incidents in ancient Indian stories, e.g. Astrologers said Siddhartha would become King of Kings if took interest in warfare or will become a Buddha, a great teacher if he took interest in Philosophy. The Sangam age Tamil Poet Elango (born to Chera King) to become much famous than his elder brother Senguttavan. Thinking that Elanglo may become powerful than his elder brother as a king to become famous and hence to avoid a war within the family, Elango choose to become a Jain Monk and wrote the Tamil poem Silapathigaraam and became very famous). So ancient Indians believed that a person had a natural talent for a specific field and was destined to go to that field. This is what they specified by birth a person was destined to become. In the case of Vashista and Vishwamitra this was the conflict. Vashista was talented to become a sage and became a sage. Vishwamitra was already a King so as a child he was supposed to be destined to be a King. But when Vishwamitra saw the magic / mantric powers of Vashista, Vishwamitra also wanted to learn those magic / mantric powers and approached Vashista to teach him. But as Vashista believed that the natural talents of each individual was pre-destined / determined during the time of birth, Vashista told Vishwamitra that by birth Vishwamitra was destined to be a King and not a sage and hence cannot learn those tricks / mantras and refused to teach Vishwamitra (with the belief of natural talents by birth). Vishwamitra out of great curiosity and will learned the tricks elsewhere and proved to be a great sage with great power. This shattered the belief of Vashista and hence there were numerous stories about the conflict between Vashista and Vishwamitra. But the Brahmins during the evolution and rise of Brahmanism were looking into the Vedic stories to get their theories, as mentioned earlier, misinterpreted / misrepresented the concept of by birth (natural) talents and wrote that each person was destined to specific work when they were born (by birth), but instead of taking into account the natural talents took parentage (to whom the child was born) to mean by birth and wrote a child born to a Brahmin should work like a Brahmin (Priest), a child born to a King should become a King, a child born to a Merchant should work as a Merchant and a child born to a worker should work as a worker(Sudra). This concept very well helped the King as well to very easily make his sons as the next King without outside competition, similarly for the aristocrats to hold the position for their sons in the Kings court without difficulty. Hence the concept was well received by the King and rich to spread the concept of Brahmanism. (Note: In ancient India Democracy was well established. E.g. Within Koshlas – clan of Buddha, the King was selected from a round robin among a group of Chiefs for a specific tenure. The Mallas at the time of Buddha had democracy, Perumal was elected as the King for a period of 12 years from the chiefs of group of villages, When a King dies before his tenure, the new King was selected using the Chief King Temple Elephant from public – The Elephant was taken in procession from the King’s Temple with a garland in its trunk. Whom ever the Elephant places the garland on, becomes the next King). With the adoption of Brahmanism, the Kings had a secure way of making his son as the next King and very happily adopted Brahmanism, which gradually led to the strict enforcement of tight caste compartments and prevented anyone from switching profession.


What Brahminism did to India?



1. Destroyed democracy in India
2. Removed equality for women
3. Prevented Philosophy and Science from developing.
4. Divided people from socializing.
5. Made life a misery to most of the population.







In ancient India Dravidians did not have caste or Varna but there were many tribes and the people were identified by the individual tribal names. Tamil was the major language throughout India and most civilized Indian (at that time Dravidians) spoke Tamil (Damita). The old Tamil Scripture was completely different than the current Tamil Scripts. (Note: Costanzo Giuseppe Beschi (1680-1746), later called as Veera-ma-munivar, an Italian Jesuit missionary learned Tamil and formed the current Tamil letters to make it easier to write).



( Note: The original Vedas might have been writen in Tamil or similar Dravidian language. The original Vedas did not specify about caste. They are collection of songs praising their King – Indra and sang the then state of affairs. The Upanishads, Sastras and Smrithis including the Manu Smrithi were written in Classical Sanskrit after the Mauryan Era. The German historian Max Muller and English historian James Mill saw the similarity in syntax and vocabulary between Classical Sanskrit and Greek and Latin and tied that to the language of the Vedas and called it Vedic Sanskrit to give a superiority link to the Greek and Europeans and a so called Aryan civilization. The so-called Vedic Sanskrit is completely different from Classical Sanskrit and has no connection. Max Muller called the language of the Vedas as Vedic Sanskrit and gave an artificial connection between the original Vedas and Classical Sanskrit that was developed after the Maurian Era.)



In Ancient Tamil Literature Aryans were called as Mlecchas – meaning uncivilized and the ones that did not learn the Tamil Language well.

The arrival of Greeks and other Central Asian settlers to India brought the concept of slaves and class division to India. Thus the Aryans brought /made the 3 class system in line with Plato’s ideas of an egalitarian society. Thus before Ashoka converted to Buddhism there were only 3 classes (Varnas – Kings, Priests and Merchants) among the Aryans. After Ashoka converted to Buddhism, Buddhism was dominant in most / major parts of India for about 300 years under the Mauryan Empire. Hence the followers of the 3-class system lost their relevance and were becoming out of place in dominantly Buddhist society. This prompted them to plan an attack on Buddhism and took extreme measures. One of the Commanders of the Buddhist Mauryan Emperor Brihadratha murdered him and took measures to prevent Buddhism from coming back. As it is common to form a new constitution, adopt a new language with the formation of a new nation (especially when the new nation is formed out of hatred for an existing nation), a new language was formed which was classical Sanskrit. A new constituition evolved in the form of Smrithis. The new language called as Sanskrit was used to write the Upanishads, Sastras and Smrithis and to rewrite MahaBaratha and Ramayana to suite the needs of the new formed order that was called Brahamanism. The Guptas were the pioneers to adopt and propage Brahamanism, Sanskrit and the new Constitution – that was later called the Manu Smrithi. The people that did not adopt Brahamanism were termed as Vrathyas (Meaning Ignoble) and were made gradually as UNTOUCHABLES over a span of several centuries as and when opportunities arouse to subdue the so-called Vrathyas. The Kings, Priest and Merchants that adopted Brahamanism were absorbed as Ksatryas, Brahamins and Vaysyas. The commoners that lived in those Kingdoms that adopted Brahamanism were termed as Sudras and were used as workers of various types. The Kings that opposed Brahamanism and refused to accept the class system and refused to accept Brahamins as their advisors were ex-communicated and when these kingdoms fell from power the people inthose Kingdoms that adopted Brahamanism were absorbed as Sudras and the people that still opposed Brahamanism were made as UNTOUCHABLES.









(From

Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Ancient India,

Chapter 12: Shudras and the Counter-Revolution – By Dr.B.R.Ambedkar)



“…history shows that the two dynasties which preceded Manu were dynasties of Shudras Kings. The Nandas who ruled from B.C.413 to B.C. 322 were Shudras. The mauryas who succeded the Nandas and who ruled from 322 B.C, to 183 B.C. were also Shudras. What more glaring piece of evidence can there be to show the high dignity enjoyed by the Shudra than to point to the case of Asoka who was not merely the Emperor of India but a Shudra and his Empire was the Empire built by the Shudras.”





Some of the rules of Manu Smrithi (From The 1936 Annual Conference of
the Jat-Pat-Todak-Mandal of Lahore - Annihilation of Caste, Section XXII – By Dr.B.R.Ambedkar)



1. Rationalism as a canon of interpreting the Vedas and Smritis is absolutely condemned. It is regarded to be as wicked as atheism and the punishment provided for it is ex-communication.

(The following within the parenthesis is written by the author for clarity: After the downfall of Mauryan Buddists Empire, those who accepted the Vedas and Smritis were included as Sudras as explained earlier. Those Buddists and others who questioned the Vedas and Smritis were ex-communicated according to this Manu’s rule and gradually became Untouchables – This was one way. The other way to ex-communication and gradually to Untouchability was when a King and his army lose in war and did not accept the new order. The ones that accepted were absorbed as Sudras)



2. When there was conflict and contradiction between the rules of different Smriti then only the Manu Smriti must be used.

3. Not to follow even God in their good deeds, if they are contrary to the rules of Shurti, Smriti and Sadachar!





From "Riddle In Hinduism, RIDDLE NO. 11, WHY DID THE BRAHMINS MAKE THE HINDU GODS SUFFER TO RISE AND FALL?"

...

Let us take the case of Shiva.That Shiva was originally an Anti-Vedic God is abundently clear. The following two incidents recorded in the Bhagvata Purana (and also in the Mahabharata) throw a flood of light on the subject. The first incident shows how enmity arose between Shiva and his father-in-law Daksha...





Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Ancient India, CHAPTER 9, Essays on the Bhagwat Gita: Philosophic Defence of Counter-Revolution: Krishna and His Gita,

IV,



According to astronomical calculations, the date when the Uttarayana should start with the Sun in the Dhanistha constellation to about 1,500 years before the Saka era; and according to astronomical calculations, it takes about a thousand years for the Uttarayana to start one constellation earlier. According to this calculation, the date when the Uttarayana ought to start with the Sun in the Shravana constellation comes to about 500 years before the Saka era. This conculsion would have been proper if it was true that the Mahabharata was one whole piece, written at one time by one author. It has, however, been shown that there is no warrant for such an assumption. In view of this Mr. Tilak's astroncomical evidence cannot be used to determine the date of the Mahabharata. It cam be used only to determine the date of that part of the Mahabharata which is affected by it—in this case the Adi Parva of the Mahabharata…





All that one can say is that the Mahabharata was composed between 400B.C. to 400A.D






Note:



Lord Shiva and Lord Vishnu were worshipped in India before pre-vedic period and even before 1500 B.C



The Bhagawat Gita has 4 philosophies that are contradictory to one-another. According to the original Bharata, Krishna reasoned Arjuna to fight. But according to Mahabaratha – rewritten during rise of Brahmanism, Bhagawat Gita was included into it as a means to justify various theories of Brahmanism. Moreover Krishna pleaded Arjuna to fight at the Battlefield were the armies have assembled and ready to fight – not in a home or some place before the armies were assembled to fight. So at the maximum Krishan could have advised Arjuna for a few minutes to few hours. But given the length of the Bhagawat Gita, it would have taken months for Krishna to tell that to Arjuna, and was realistically not possible in a battlefield. For more details review the references given below.



Also according to Ramayana, Rama did not know he was an avatar of Lord Vishnu till the end of Ramayana when he ousted Sita out of suspicion of adultery and Gods appeared and explained to him that he was an avatar of Lord Vishnu.




CLARIFICATION



The writtings of Dr.B.R.Ambedkar gives lot of information about ancient India, Buddhism, Brahminism, orgins of Untouchability.

But with the new information and light on history, some of the assumptions and theories put forth by Dr. B.R.Ambedkar seem to be wrong or slightly different from history. Most of the research work used by Dr. B.R.Ambedkar was from English Translations of Ancient literature and Hindi. Moreover the new evidences found now were not available for Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. This may be the reason for these mistakes.



1. Dr.B.R.Ambedkar assumed that the Pandavas and Kavravas from Bharatha / Mahabharatha are Aryans.

Based on the books of Thiru.Deva Asirvatham, Tamil literature and other evidence it seems Pandavas and Kavravas were Dravidians and Mallas. As the old epics of ancient India – Baratha and Ramayana were used to support and explain Brahminism, new stories and Philosophies were added to – Baratha to make Mahabharatha and Ramayana from ~185 BC onwards. From this period onwards these epics got many new stories aiding Brahminism. To add to this confusion Britishers also wrote the Aryan invasion theory (to uphold the idea that Europeans were a superior race) and connected Brahmins to Aryans and further darkened the truths of History.

This could have lead Dr.B.R.Ambedkar and many others to believe Pandavas, Kavravas and Rama to be Aryans.



Also to note, in ancient India, outsiders were called as Aryans and they were considered as uncivilized. Later the meaning of Aryan changed to citizen and Noble (According to change of status of outsiders at that time). So Aryan was not a specific class or race of people. Only Britishers equated Aryans to Brahmins. Brahmins were initially the worshippers of Brahma, then a class of worker that performed of the job of Brahma (priestly activities), that were obsorbed from various worker classes by Kings as neccessatity arose (especially during times of great yaggams Kings converted many people to Brahmins for the purpose of Charity), then Brahmin became a caste. Because Manu smriti gave protection to Brahmins – that a Brahmin should not be killed or attacked by anyone, and as they worked as priest no one bothered to attack a Brahmin. Because of this they alone prevailed economically with any change of Kingdom / change of power / change of rule. So when Britishers came to Power, the Brahmins were maintaining the good economic status (that others lost with change of power) and were harmless to the Britishers. So Britishers educated the Brahmins, taught them English and placed them in British government offices and passed laws supporting and aiding Brahminism. They also created the theory that Brahmins were Aryans and a superior race. Once Brahmins were well placed in British governmnet next to Britishers, they started modifying historic litrature to their liking / advantage. At a later stage Brahmins started opposing the Britishers asking for freedom. Only then Britishers realized their mistake and started educating others and brought about reforms in India. But by then the Aryan invasion theory, the notion of an Aryan as a Brahmin was well established in India and history books.



2. He wrote that most of the ancient Indian Kings were Nagas and mentioned that Rajendra Chola was a Naga.

From Thiru.Deva Asirvatham’s books, Tamil literature and other newly found evidences it is well established that Rajendra Chola,

Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas are all Mallars – Dravidians.



3. He wrote that the poor / broken beef eating people became Untouchables.

The People who questioned or who did not accept the rules of Manu and hence Brahminism were ex-communicated in a Kingdom that supported Brahminism. Because of ex-communication these people removed / robbed of their wealth and belonging and were driven out of towns and cities and were not given any opportunity to work within the Kingdom. Over a period of several generations the descendents of these driven out people became very economically poor. These people were made as Untouchables during the peak of Brahminism (Nayaks / Vijayanagar dynasity of Andra and Tamilnadu, Peshawars of Maharastra and mid part of British rule -when only Brahmins and certain so called upper castes of that time were educated).



After the downfall of the Mauryan Empire, the Kalabras attack was the raise of Brahminism. The supporters of Mauryan / Buddhist were the first to be attacked. Millions of Buddhists were killed and many fled to China, Ceylon and other places. Many hid in the forests. Some accepted Brahminism and became Sudras. The ones that escaped the killings but escaped to the forests were ex-communicated. Buddhists Philosophy was NOT TO KILL ANY LIVING BEING / ANIMAL. So they did not delibrately kill animals to eat. But they ate animals that already died. So when the Buddhists were ex-communicated and over a period of time when their descendants became poor but dependant on the towns and cities, they started to eat the dead cows from the villages and towns which were disposed by the inhabitants of the towns. So the Buddhist turned untouchables ate Beef.



Tamil Kings – Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas and their kinsmen amd women – the Mallars, Devendrakula Vellalars etc did not eat Beef because their occupation was farming during peacetime and warriors during wartime. Since they used cow to get Milk and OX to plough the field, Cow and Ox were considered as part of their family. Hence did not eat them. They specifically grew goat and chicken for meat. After they were defeated in war and driven out of towns and cities and were ex-communicated by Nayak Kings, their descendants became poor over a period of 500 years but became agricultural laborers in the land owned by their forefathers under the new landlords. But they followed their tradition of not eating Beef. But owing to their poverty and ex-communication adopted by the newly formed upper castes they were treated as untouchables between 19 and mid part of 20 century.



Dr.B.R.Ambedkar was right to some extant in saying the Broken Beef eating people became Untouchables, but it was not because they ate Beef they became Untouchables. It was because they challenged Brahminism and laws of Manu and resisted to become Sudras once they lost their Kingdom and hence were Ex-communicated and in due course became Untouchables. Gradually as they became poor as they were not given opportunity to study, to work, to bear arms their condition degraded further which lead the descendants of ex-communicated Buddhists to eat dead meat – beef as it was easily available and was allowed in Buddhism, and were further degraded and made Untouchable. By this time (more than 15 generations) they left / forget most of their Buddist tradition and origin. The descendants of Saivite and Vishnavite Kingdoms that were ex-communicated after their defeat went through the same degradation and humiliation, as the Buddhists, but they still did not eat Beef. But at the peak of Brahminism during British rule all the differences became hazy as all ex-communicated communities were branded as Untouchables. In 1784, a law was passed by Britishers declaring that all Indians except Muslims, Christines, Buddists and Jains as Hindus and stated the Vedic and Smrity rules (which the Brahmins were trying to implement since the down fall of Mauryan Empire) is applicable to all Hindus. Also the British law declared most non-Brahmin communities under the Hindu corrider as Sudras except the Tribes, Untouchables and the 18 worker communities (that supported the Mallar Kings) that did not accept Brahminism.

It should be noted that in ancient India only Pullayar (in South India) and Chamar (in North India) were considered impure and Untouchable – Note the degree of Untoucability towards the Pullayar and Chamar in ancient India was much different than that of the Untouchability towards all Untouchables during the peak of Brahminism in 17, 18, 19 and 20th Century AD.

The Pullayar and Chamar were treated as impure because of their Job. The Pullayar burnt dead bodies at Cremation. So they were considered impure. For example now a days all Biohazards in hospitals and other places are kept and disposed seperately. Likewise Pullayar and Chamar were avoided. To prepare general public to taking care of themselves from the perceived impurity the Pullayar and Chamar were supposed to blow a horn when they arrive at public place. Women were prevented from directly giving food to them. They were not restricted or castrigated like the Untouchables were treated during the peak of Brahminism in 17, 18, 19 and 20th Century AD.







The following is taken from various pages of http://en.wikipedia.org/





The Manusmriti (Sanskrit मनुस्मृति), translated "Laws of Manu" is a foundational work of Brahmin law, written c.200 in India. It is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or "laws of righteous conduct"). The Smritis contain laws, rules and codes of conduct to be applied by individuals, communities and the nations.



Manusmriti (verse II.39) informs that, if after the last prescribed period, the people (twice-born) remain uninitiated, they become Vratyas, fallen from Savitri and thus discarded by the Aryans.



The Mallars, like the Lichchhavis, are mentioned by Manusmriti as Vratya Kshatriyas. They are called Vasishthas (Vasetthas) in the Mahapparnibbana Suttanta.



Manusmriti (X/43-44) informs us that, in consequence of the omission of sacred Brahmanical rituals/codes and of their not heeding to the Brahmanans, the following noble Kshatriyas have gradually sunk in this world to the state of vrishalatam i.e become degenrate Kshatriyas: the Paundrakas, Chodas, Dravidas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Shakas, Paradas, Pahlavas, Chinas, Kiratas and Daradas.



A formal procedure is detailed in Mahabharata as to how these Vratya Kshatriyas (or the alien hordes) could attain the high status of noble Kshatriyas in the Hindu society. The most important among the recommendations are the performance of paka-yajanas (minor sacrifices) and giving rich gifts to the Brahamin priests at these sacrifices (MBH XII.65.13-22; also see: Comprehensive History of India, Dr K. A. Nilkanta Sastri, Vol II, 1957, p 46





From the above description it is clear that Kings that did not support / adopt Brahminis were degraded as Vratya Kshatriyas. As long as these Kings were in power the supporters of Brahminism could not do anything about them.



But once the Kings lost power the Kings and their Kinsmen were degraded to Sudras. If they did not accept that and questioned the laws / validity of Manu’s laws they were ex-communicated according to Manu’s law. These ex-communicated communities became untouchables over a period of time.



For example the Chera, Chola and Pandyas are Mallas and also Dravidas. They were great Kings of India. Infact in Tamil Poems all the Gods – Lord Shiva, Godess Uma, Lord Murugan (Lord Karthik), Lord Ganesh (Lord Vinayaka), Lord Vishnu, Godess Lakshmi, Lord Brahma, Godess Sarswathi are all sung as Mallars. The Mallars were great devotess of Shivaism, Vishnavism, Buddhism and Jainism. Inspite of that they were branded as Vratya Kshatriyas ( degraded Kshatriyas) by Manu because they did not support Brahminism. With the downfall of Mallas (Mala, also called Palla in Tamilnadu after the down fall of the Tamil Malla Kings – Chera, Chola, Pandya) they were ex-communicated and were branded as Untouchables throughout India as they did not adopt Brahminism.





The Brahmins were originally the devotees of Brahma. This is the reason in the Vedas written during the raise of Brahminism (after ~185 BC), the creation of Universe was attributed to Lord Brahma. The Brahmins also followed the priestly work of Brahma.

But they were always looking for an opportunity to over throw the Kings and become powerful. But their attempt miserably failed as illustrated in the following Story.



The claim for superiority between Kings and Priests is illustrated in the story for the claim for superiority between Lord Vishnu (the protector - Kings were protectors in ancient times) and Lord Brahma (the celestial chief Priest in Heaven who was incharge for saying Mantras, conducting Heavenly Marriages etc that are works of Priest). In this contest, Lord Shiva banished Lord Brahma from being worshipped because Lord Brahma lied to claim superiority. The actual truth of the story may not be clear, but with this the worship of the God of Brahmins – Lord Brahma was stopped.



But the Brahmins adopted Vishnavism and Shivaism which the Kings and their country men followed but always awaited opportunity to topple the Kings (with vengence as their God Brahma was removed from prayers). Gradually over a period of time they were able to achive this by ex-communicating a King and his Kinsmen while pretending to support another, untill all Kings and his Kinsmen that opposed Brahminism were ex-communicated and made Untouchables.







Based on



1. REVOLUTION AND COUNTER-REVOLUTION IN ANCIENT INDIA – By Dr.B.R.Ambedkar

2. RIDDLE IN HINDUISM – By Dr.B.R.Ambedkar

3. PHILOSOPHY OF HINDUISAM – By Dr.B.R.Ambedkar

4. THE UNTOUCHABLES WHO WERE THEY AND WHY THEY BECAME UNTOUCHABLES? – By Dr.B.R.Ambedkar

5. WHO WERE THE SHUDRAS? – By Dr.B.R.Ambedkar

6. Moovendar Yaar? In Tamil (Translates to: Who are the three Kings - Tamil Kings – Chera, Chola and Pandya?) – By Thiru. R.Deva Asirvatham

7. Pallar alla Mallar aam Mannar. In Tamil (Translates to: Not Pallas but Mallas – Kings.) – By Thiru. R.Dev Asirvatham

8. Who are Vellalar? – By Thiru. R.Dev Asirvatham

Malaikaruppu said...

SOME HISTORICAL EVIDENCES ABOUT MOOVENDAR...

Mallars were one of the oldest tribes in India. They as also called as Mala, Malla, Malicos (by Greeks).

They were the cause of ancient civilization in India. They are mentioned in the Mahabaratha.

They were the basis for Saivaism, Vishnavism (Brahmanism / Hinduism hijaked Saivaism and Vishnavism).

Lord Shiva, Goddess Meenakshi (Durga, Parvathi, Amman), Lord Vishnu, Goddess Lakshmi, Lord Murugan, Lord Vinayak (Ganesh), Lord Krisha are all mentioned as Mallas in ancient literature. The Mallas were also great devotees of Buddha and spread Buddhism during and after te life of Buddha. Buddha died among the Mallas and the Cremation of Buddha was done by the Mallas.



The Mallas were Land Lords and farmers during peace time and warriors during war time. In ancient India as farming was the major and noble profession

they were the first citizens hence Nobles and Kings and were the basis for civilization in India. They built numerous cities in India. Most of the Temples of Lord Shiva, Goddess Amman (Durga), Lord Vishnu (Perumal), Lord Muruga, Lord Ganesh, Lord Krishna were built by them.

When a great and good Malla King died he was cremated and in due course of time a Siva Temple was built at the place of Cremtion.

When a great and good Malla Queen died, she was cremated and in due course of time an Amman Temple was built at that site.

Lord Vishnu (Perumal) represented a living good Malla King.



The Mallas ruled India under several dynasty names. Some of them include Pandiyan, Cholan, Cheran, Pallava, Chalukya Kings.

and the Kings



The Mallas formed rules of war that was noble than what is now devised in the United Nations International rules of War.

Some of them include fight at a designated Battlefield at designated time.

Begin the war after Sunrise with the blow of horn when both armies are ready to fight and stop the war before Sunset with the blow of horn.

Fight only those designated as soldiers and that too those that have weapon and ready to fight.

Do not engage in a fight with soldiers that run from the Battlefield.

They also thought dying in a war fighting is Martyr rather than running away as a coward once initially agreed to fight.

When a subordinate King agreed to pay takes and later refused to pay takes and also refused to fight at a designated place and shuts his city gates then the Superior King send his troops to blow the city walls and plunder the city.



The Greek travelers were so amazed to see people working in farmlands unharmed and without intervention when two armies were fighting in a near by battlefield, such was the code or war conduct of the Mallas.





The Mallas had different forms of Democracy and means of choosing the leader. The village Chiefs were chosen through an election that was caste by polling votes in a leaf and placing in a Pot. The person stating in these elections should have a prescribed minimum amount of land and paid taxes and should not have had any prior criminal records. Several Village Chiefs chose the Chief of Village Chiefs known as Perumal. The Perumals post was a one time tenure of 12 years. Later with change in time the Perumals became Kings and their sons became the succeeding Kings. When a King died without heir the next King or Queen was chosen with the help of the Kings Elephant. After prayers in the Kings Temple, the Royal Kings Elephant was given a garland and taken through the streets. On whom ever the Elephant places the Garland became the next King or Queen. They also elected representatives of villages by placing the list of names all willing participants in a basket and prayed the Village God or Goddess and then picked a draw. Whose ever name came in the draw became a representative. (Now days we consider this as a matter of luck or lottery. But they believed this is the will of God and hence adopted this procedure).



The Kings or Perumal with extraordinary valour, talent and who performed well were considered as God. Note Perumal was later equated to Lord Vishnu. In Tamilnadu even today Vishnu Temples are called Perumal Temples. Note the similarity of roles. Lord Vishnu / Perumal is considered the Protector. In ancient Malla culture the Kings / Perumals were the Protectors of the nation.

A Malla King Perumal of extraordinary valour, talent and who performed well and did good deeds to the nation that died was burnt to ashes and at the place of his cremation a Shiva Lingum was erected and a Lord Shiva Temple was built at this place. There was two-fold significance to the Linga first it meant the person cremated there was a Male, second, the person has become formless and shapeless and reached infinite with God.

Perumal represented the living King and Lord Shiva represented the dead King but attaining infinity, but this was later misinterpreted as Lord Vishnu / Perumal as the Protector God and Lord Shiva as the God of death or destruction. At the place of cremation of a queen with extraordinary valour, talent and who performed well and did good deeds an Amman / Durga Temple was erected. The Mallas lived throughout India but had separate Kingdoms in different dynasty names. The Mallas in the South India ruled by the name of Pandiyas, Cholas, Cheras, Pallavas (Note Pallavas were descendants of Early Cholas.) In North India they lived as Mallas but specific dynasty names are known yet. They were the basis for ancient Indian Civilization and this is the reason throughout India Lord Shiva and Lord Vishnu and Lord Durga are the primary Gods.

The Mallas were farmers, landlords, and administrators during peacetime and were warriors during wartime. There were several classifications of workers that supported the civilization and these workers married whom they wanted and performed what job they wanted. THERE WAS NO CASTE IN INDIA AT THAT TIME.



BUT AS THE MALLAS DID NOT ADOPT / SUPPORT BRAHAMANISM they were excommunicted when they lost power to rulers that supported Brahmanism and were gradually made Untouchables over a period of 200 to 300 years. The bulk of this change happened mostly after the 13th Century.



Mallas, Malas are scattered all around India and some around the World.



NOTE: The later Cholas expanded their reign through out South India, East India, North East India, and East and South of the Peninsular India.

One of the great grand sons of Raja Raja Cholan, called as Kulotungan was also called by name Karikala (In honor / rememberance of the Great Early Chola Karikala). The current Nepal Kings claim they are Mallas and the originator of their Kingdom in Nepal was by name Karakala during the 13t Century A.D. The time period fits ith the Karikala Chola of later Cholas.





CURRENT STATUS OF MALLAS



In Tamilnadu



The Cholas and Chalukyas together defeated the Pallavas in about 9th Century A.D. (Though the Pallavas were Mallas and were the descendants of Cholas. Illandirayan, the grandson of Early Chola Karikala was the originator of the Pallavas).

The Pandiyas defeated the Cholas in about the 14th Century A.D. (Though they were both Mallas and were relatives).

The Pandiyas were defeated through trickery by the Nayaks of Vijayanagar. After that all the Mallas of Tamilnadu were termed as Pallas by the Nayaks. The Titles of the Mallas like Vellala, Pannadi, Mannadi are used by other newly formed castes with the introduction of Brahamanism by the Nayaks. The Mallas prefer to call by name Devendrakulam /

Devendralula Vellala to mean descandants of Lord Indra, Kudumban to mean the chief of Village.



In Kerala



The Cheras were defeated during the Kalabara upraisal and did not come back to power.

Many descandants of the Cholas and Pandiyas left Tamilnadu after their defeat and live in Kerala also by name Mannaadi.



In Andra



The Mallas are called by name Malas nowadays. They are mostly the descendants of Cholas and Pandiyas.



In Karnataka





In Maharastra



The Mallas are called by name Malas, Mallas, Mahars nowadays. The GREAT Dr.B.R.Ambedkar is a Malla.



In Gujarat





In MadyaPradesh





In Utterpradesh





In Bihar





In Kashmir and Himalayas





In Nepal





In Pakistan and Afganistan





In SriLanka





In Indonasia, Malyasia





In Thailand

Malaikaruppu said...

Facts

In ancient times (~ 3000-1000 BC Indus valley civilization) Dravidians (Tamilians - Please read Who are Dravidians below) lived and ruled through out India (Current India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Thailand, Laos, Afganistan, Parts of Iran)



Pandian, Chola and Cheran Kings came from some other place (legend and hearsay says from the drowned continent Lemuria), settled in South India and diverted rivers and built banks to rivers, brought different spices of plants like rice (paddy), Banana, Turmeric, Beatle nuts, Palm tree etc, dug wells, created agriculture lands, created towns, cities, spread the Tamil language by organizing Tamil Sangam, created the concept of family with father as the head of the family, formed democracy (elected representatives called Perumal as chiefs for a one time tenure of 12 years), devised noble rule of war (Fight at a designated battle field to decide the victor and loser, fight only after day break and before sunset, fight only the designated solders, and that too only the soldiers that have weapons and not to attack a coward soldier who ran from attack) and created civilization.



Legends passed through generations say that Pandian, Cholan and Cheran were the children of same Mother and lived together in Korkai. The eldest, Pandian stayed there but Cholan and Cheran moved north and Cheran established in Vanjee and Cholan established in Ooraiuoor.



There were several language speaking people at that time. The important one among them were Naagar (Nagas), Oliar, Aruvaalar, Yeinar, Kurumbar.

To spread the Tamil language the three Tamil Kings, especially Pandian kings took great measure. Pandian King (Ookira-peru-valu-thee – considered to be the incarnation of Lord Shiva) researched the language with the sage Agathian and started the First Tamil Sangam (A campaign ) to spread the language.



Pandian King Ookiraperuvaluthee went to Deva World, and brought sons of Devas and Devis with the seedlings of several grains and plants, dug several wells, started agriculture and made the land fertile.

Somasundara Pandian (Lord Shiva) conquered Himalayas and established his reign there.



Tadathagai Peraatee (Meenkshi Goddess Parvathi), Pandian Princess conquered up to Himalayas and married Lord Shiva.



Lord Murugan (Pandian Prince, Son of Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvathi) commandeered the army of Devas and conquered several Kingdoms.



Chola King Gaandamun dug the Koodaku mountain and brought the Kaveri river to Chola country.



Chola King Karikaalan (ancient Cholas) build the Kall-aanai (Dam) to divert the Kaveri river to the lands were water was necessary. Another Chola King Karikaalan (later Cholas) built banks to the river Kaveri.



Karigaalan’s grand son Eelandirayan conquered the Tondaimandalam lands from the native Oliar, Aruvaalar, Yeinar, Kurumbar and immigrated Tamilians to that land and started agriculture in that area. His dynasty later became the Pallavas.



Lord Buddha liked the Malla Kingdoms, lived and spent his last years in the Malla Kingdom and died there. Last rites to Buddha were done by the Mallas. (The Malla country was a non-Monarchy at that period)



With Pandian and Tamil Kings, colonies of Roman subjects engaged in trade and settled in South India. Roman soldiers (European soldiers) acted as body guards to Tamil Kings and Roman soldiers worked in the Pandian army and army of other Tamil Kings.



Pandian Nedunj-Cheliyan was called as Aryappadai-Kaderetha- Nedunj-Cheliyan, meaning Destroyer of Aryan army - Nedunj-Cheliyan Pandian. (Please review who are the Aryans below as there is a false notion that Brahmins are Aryans)



During the end of 3rd Century A.D. the Tamil Kings went into oblivion (became smaller kings) due to Kalabiras. The 3rd Tamil Sangam stopped with that. (Till now there is no history pointing to who the Kalabiras are. But Thiru.R.Devasirvatham thinks it was an internal revolt that happened through out India that lead to Chaos through out India. It should be noted that this was the period when the Buddist Mauryan Emperor Brihadratha was murdered by one of his commanders and a Brahminism / Hinduism based society started emerging in North India).



The Pallavas moved to the north (current Andra State) during this period, adopted a different language, but came back to Tondaimandalam in the 4th Century AD and expanded and ruled till 9th Century AD.



During 6th Century AD Pandian King Kadungoan defeated the Kalabiras and once again established the Pandian Kingdom.



Pandian Kings were Jains at this time. Then Pandian King Nedumaaran (also called as KoonPandian) who married Chola Princess Mangayar-karaasi became Saivam (Devotee of Lord Shiva) from Jainism.



Pandian Kings supported the Cholas during this time and waged several wars against the Pallavas and gradually expanded their empire into the Pallava Empire.



During the 9th Century AD, Chola King Vijayalayan defeated Muthirayar (A part of the Pandian Clan) in Thanjavur and established the Chola Kingdom.



The Chola empire expanded under Raja Raja Cholan (Original name Arul-molli-varman) and his son, Rajendra Cholan. Their empire was unchallenged through out India. They had their administrative control upto Mid India (Maharastra, Madyapradesh, Orissa, Bengal ) in the North, the entire South India, Srilanka, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia in the South.



The Cholas built 1000s of Temples through out their Empire. The Bragadeeswarar Big Temple in Thanjavur, Chidambaram Natarajar Temple, Tiruvarur Temple were built by Cholas. (A side note: At present it is not known who built the Temples in Elephanta Caves. The Elephanta Caves have big sculpture of Lord Murugan. Lord Murugan is considered as a Tamil God. So the Elephanta Caves may be built by a Malla / Tamil King)



During 13th Century AD, Chola Empire began to decline. Because of the humiliation done to Pandian King by Cholan Kulothungan earlier, Pandian King SundaraPandian destroyed most part of Cholan Empire, burnt Tanjavur leaving only the Temples and the Convention Center (16 leg Mandapam) Built by Cholan Karikaalan.



The Pandian Empire was rich with GOLD, Pearl and Spices. The City Gates of Madurai (Capital of Pandian King at that time) was ornamented with Gold and Pearls.



During 14th Century Pandian empire began to decline because of frequent attacks my Muslim Kings. Muslim Kings raided cities, killed hundreds of thousands of citizens and took huge amount (tonnes and tonnes) of gold and Jewellery to Delhi. (It is to be noted there were about 20,000 Muslim soldiers in the Pandian army. But these soldiers betrayed the Pandian Kings and joined the Muslim army when Muslim army attacked Pandian Kingdom. A part of the modern Kallan community was Muslims at that time. As evidence the Kallan community follow certain Muslim customs like Sunnath -removing the foreskin of Pennies, having horse tail’s hair in the Mangalsudram -Taali or Wedding chain of the bride - wife)



During the end of 14th Century Vijayanagar army chiefs came to Madurai and defeated the Muslim rulers with the help of Pandian Chiefs and the Vijayanagar army chief established his rule in Madurai. Gradually Vijayanagar army and citizens moved to Chola and Pandian Kingdom and removed the privileges of the Tamil elite – Removal of land ownership from Tamils (Mallar – Devendrakulathar, Original Vellala) and forcebly transfered ownership of Land and Title to Telugu Nayaks, Telugu Brahmins and others who supported the Nayak rule. New rules were passed to stop contact with Pandian and their relatives by general citizens. Rule were passed to prevent contact and intermarriage between the 18 worker communities that supported the Tamil society and Tamil Kings, Nayaks encouraged Pallu literature and changed Name of the successors of Tamil Kings and their relatives from Malla to Pallan. Due to censure, low status and avoidance of contact with supporters of Tamil Kings many of the Mallars migrated to Kerala (Mannradiar), Ceylon and Malayasia. The Nayaks allowed other Tribes to Plunder the Mallas, motivated other communities to challange the Mallas and to claim their title, elevated the status and privilege of supporters of Telugu rule, Telugu Brahmins and encouraged Sanskrit.



After the Mallas-humiliated as Pallas, went through several distress, oppression and quarantine, many of them converted to Christianity, Islam but many still remain as Hindus. It should be noted and emphasized again that the Mallas were the originators, guardians, Gods, Goddess, devotees and builders of the Saivite and Vishnavite religion which is the basis of current but transformed Hinduism. But the descendants of Mallas were made low in the society that enjoys and cherishes the culture and civilization built by the Mallas.



Facts on Indian Religion.



1. Lord Siva represents eternity and infinity with any form and shape and without form and shape, visible and invisible. When a great Malla King died, his body was burnt to ashes and a Lingum was erected. Then a Siva Temple was built on the site. So a Malla King who left the World and joined eternity was represented by the Lingam (formless, infinite and eternal) who reached Lord Siva.

(The temple built on the cremation of Raja Raja Chola was found recently in Darasaram, near Kumbakonam in Tanjavur district of Tamilnadu). The Lingams in Indus valley represent the same as explained above.



2. Lord Vishnu is the Protector. In olden days the King was the Protector. King was considered a God. The King or chief of several chiefs of villages was called as Perumal (an elected tenure for 12 years) (Ref: Moovendar yaar (Revised Edition) – Page 75). It is to be noted Lord Vishnu was also called as Perumal in Tamilnadu. So the living King, the protector of the nation and his subjects represented Lord Vishnu.



Questions and References



1. Who are the Dravidians – Dravidians means Tamilians



From ‘THE UNTOUCHABLES WHO WERE THEY AND WHY THEY BECAME UNTOUCHABLES?’, CHAPTER VII, RACIAL DIFFERENCE AS THE ORIGIN OF UNTOUCHABILITY’ By Dr.B.R.Ambedkar



“The second thing to be borne in mind is that the word 'Dravida' is not an original word. It is the Sanskritized form of the word Tamil'.

The original word Tamil' when imported into Sanskrit became Damita and later on Damilla became Dravida. The word Dravida is the name of the language of the people and does not denote the race of the people. The third thing to remember is that Tamil or Dravida was not merely the language of South India but before the Aryans came it was the language of the whole of India and was spoken from Kashmere to Cape Camorin.”



2. What is the meaning of Aryan in ancient Rig Veda?



The word Aryan had different meaning at different times. The word Aryan was used with the context and meaning of ‘Enemy’ in earliest Rig Vedas. In later Rig Veda poems the word Aryan was used in the context to mean ‘Respectable Noble’ and then later to mean ‘Citizen’ [From WHO WERE THE SHUDRAS? By Dr.B.R.Ambedkar, APPENDIX III Different meanings of the word "Arya" found in the Rig Veda.]



3. What is the meaning of Aryan in ancient Tamil?



The word Aryan had different meaning at different times in Tamil also. According to the oldest Tamil Dictionary (Thevaagaram or Nigandu written may be between 1- 3 Century BC) the word ‘Aryan’ – was defined as Millacher meaning ‘Uncivilized’. Later to mean a person who did not learn Tamil properly and later on it meant outsider. (Ref: Moovendar yaar (Revised Edition) – Page 36)



4. What is Rig Veda?



Originally. it was a collection of songs written by Kings, Sages about the life and activities of Indra and his country, songs written by Sages in praise of Indra and requesting for wealth, songs pleading Indra to protect them from enemies (Asuras and Aryans!). Later with the birth of Brahminism, songs were added to explain creation, three divisions of labour - Varnas (Brahmin, Khsatria and Vayshia). A much later collection called the 'Purusha Sukta' was added as part of Rig Veda. The ‘Purusha Sukta‘ included a fourth division called Sudra and changed the pre-existing 3 labour divisions into four social classes – Jaadee (Brahmin, Khsatria, Vayshia and Sudra)



5. Who is Indra?



Indra was the name given to the King of the Devas (Title for the King of Devas). Like the term ‘King’ itself Indra meant the King of Devas. Indra was not a single person but a title. The word Indra was coined from ‘Devar-Vendan’ (Vendan meaning King in Tamil), meaning King of Devas, then was called as Deva-Vendan. Then the two words collapsed to one word as ‘Devendran’ and the last part was used as Indran (Tamil) and Indra (Sanskritized form).



In Kerla Cheran Kings were called as Indra. (Ref: Moovendar yaar (Revised Edition) – Page 75). Pandian Kings were also called as Indra. (Ref: Moovendar yaar (Revised Edition) – Page 85, 93).



6. Now a day there is a notion that Brahmin means Aryan. Is it true that all Brahmins are Aryans?



Who are the Brahmins and who are the Aryans





------------------------



Inference from Facts



Inference that can be made based on Moovendar Yaar? (Thiru.R.Deva Asirvatham), Pallar Alla Mallar aam Mannar, Tamil Illakiathil Pallar (Mallar) Devendrakula Vellalar (Dr.Guruswamy Siddan), Who are the Sudras? (Dr.B.R.Ambedkar)



It should be noted that in the Vedas, Lord Indra and the Devas are called for help through Mantras but they do not claim any relationship with the Devas. But the Tamil kings celebrated Indra vella (Festival) every year and had Indra as their God. The Devendrakulam community also claim they are the descendants of Lord Indra and the Devas and have symbolically used the objects owned by Lord Indra like White Elephant, Round White Umbrella, 16 pillar building and tent (Pandal), 18 types of Musical sounds for their festival etc. So one should think about history and relation between Indra, Vedas, Tamil Kings, Mallar and Devendrakulam community and who the Devas, Aryans really were.



The origin of Brahmanism, Caste and Riddles in Hinduism